Emerging RAS, BRAF, and EGFR mutations in cell-free DNA of metastatic colorectal patients are associated with both primary and secondary resistance to first-line anti-EGFR therapy.

Oncogenic RAS mutations are negative biomarkers of response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blockade. RAS mutations are usually detected in biopsies of primary colorectal tumors. However, the genomic profiles of primary tumors and metastases are not always concordant, and chemotherapeutic agents can alter the tumor molecular landscape.

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a novel tool to detect molecular heterogeneity. This study evaluated the clinical utility of cfDNA to predict primary or secondary resistance to EGFR blockade in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Thirty metastatic colorectal cancer patients without RAS and BRAF mutations were prospectively enrolled and treated with cytotoxic agents and EGFR blockade as first-line therapy. cfDNA was analyzed for the presence of RAS, BRAF, and EGFR (S492R) point mutations before initiating chemotherapy and every 2 months during chemotherapy.

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The analysis was performed in 223 plasma samples from all 30 patients. Of the 30 patients, five had RAS mutations in their cfDNA before starting chemotherapy and did not respond. Twenty-four of the remaining 25 patients without cfDNA RAS mutations had a response. Twenty of the 24 responders developed secondary resistance and cfDNA RAS mutations were found in 17 of the 20. cfDNA BRAF mutations were found in seven, and EGFR mutations were found in eight of the 20 patients.

Emerging RAS, BRAF, and EGFR mutations occurred in patients with primary and secondary resistance to EGFR blockade. The detection of these mutations in cfDNA is a promising approach to predict treatment response and secondary resistance.

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